Kamis, 28 Mei 2009

Arti dan Makna lambang pada bendera Keselamatan dan Kesehatan kerja (K3)

Bentuk lambang : Palang dilingkari roda bergerigi sebelas berwarna hijau di atas dasar putih.
Arti dan makna lambang :
Palang : bebas dari kecelakan dan sakit akibat kerja.
Roda gigi : bekerja dengan kesegaran jsmani dan rohani
Warna putih : bersih, suci
Warna hijau : selamat, sehat dan sejahtera
Sebelas gerigi roda : 11 Bab dalam Undang-undang No. 1 tahun 1970 tentang Keselamatan Kerja
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Senin, 25 Mei 2009

How supervisors can boost morale in the workplace

As a supervisor, you want your work atmosphere to stay positive and productive. However, coming up with methods to achieve this isn’t always simple.
But recognize that you set the emotional “tone” of the workplace environment. Those in charge of any group of people have this power. For example, do you remember those childhood car trips when Dad or Mom got cranky? When an adult got frustrated, this mood change could make or break the entire trip!
Your positive approach to things should eventually improve the mood—and therefore the productivity—of everyone in your department. Emotions, like the common cold, are very “catching.”
You can help your employees enjoy their work environment more if you try the following:
- Find ways to honor each individual.

Employees need to feel that they aren’t disappearing into the woodwork. They want to feel that they exist as a person first—an employee second. Ask them to make a list of ways management can help them feel recognized. For example, would they enjoy recognition when they have a special anniversary or birthday?
-Create a career “track” for each employee.

Help every person develop a “vision” of personal success. Create a template for them to use in order to document skills they’ve acquired, skills they want to learn and goals they want to reach.
-Ask for creative input.

In many companies, the “suggestion box” may be the only creative avenue of input some employees will have. Not everyone gets invited to participate in planning sessions.If you ask for suggestions from others, try to incorporate a few ideas—even if you have to fine-tune them a little. Give personal recognition for every person who makes an honest effort to contribute a winning idea.
-Bring their families into the work setting.

Inquire about your employees’ children. Make it a point to ask about a child’s piano recital or ball game. If your department is rather large, you might consider publishing a newsletter to share family-oriented information.
-Give them something to look forward to.

Psychologists say that having something to look forward to relieves stress and creates healthy anticipation of the future. You might, for example, encourage your employees to bring desserts to work the last Friday of each month. Take 30 minutes to eat and chat after 5 p.m. Or, have a lottery drawing for a gourmet dinner once a month..
-Incorporate humor, whenever appropriate.

A work atmosphere that is too straight-laced can dim the creative spirit in employees. Incorporate jokes into your speeches. Throw in a funny story to liven up your daily chats with employees.
-Let your hair down occasionally.

Employees feel more upbeat when they really like their supervisors as people. Well-liked supervisors gain loyalty, too.
As a supervisor, you must create a positive work atmosphere in stages. It’s not a process that unfolds overnight. Implement one or two changes each week and go from there. Employees will feel more upbeat if they sense that management is trying to build a healthy work environment. You’ll know your plan is working when employees start coming to you with their own ideas for healthy change.



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Minggu, 24 Mei 2009

Common Workplace Injuries

Workplace injuries are, unfortunately, a relatively frequent occurrence. They occur, as would be expected, more often in dangerous work environments, like construction areas. They do also happen in non-traditionally dangerous fields, like in an average office. Even in a professional environment like an office building, there are many opportunities for injuries. Many of them are things that we do not expect or think of as particularly dangerous, but they can cause problems nonetheless.
Some of the most common causes of workplace injuries, according to information gathered by the Liberty Mutual Group, include:
· Overexertion. This can happen in a couple of ways, whether it is the performance of a single activity, like lifting an object that is too heavy, or an action repeated multiple times.
· Fall on a flat surface. This simply means a fall that does not include an elevation change, like slipping on a wet floor or a slippery surface.
· Falling from a height. This could include falling off of a ladder, from a roof, or down a staircase.
· Being hit with an object. Objects can fall from a shelf or be dropped by someone else- in either event, they can cause serious injuries.
· Repetitive motion. This does not have to be a particularly dangerous motion, but if it is repeated enough times, it can cause injuries like carpal tunnel or tendonitis. Typing is often associated with these kinds of injuries.
· Automobile accidents. Cars and trucks being used for business purposes have accidents; they are susceptible to all of the regular risks that any other traveler faces.
· Contact with dangerous temperatures. Frostbite, heat exhaustion, and burning are all ways that workers can be injured through changing temperatures.
· Crush injuries. Being caught or pressed by equipment, especially huge machinery, can obviously cause serious injuries. They can be devastating because of how powerful the machines are.
· Running into objects. Hitting desks, tables, chairs, or glass doors actually causes a number of injuries annually.
It is important to be as cautious as can be while at work to promote as much safety as possible, but it is also the responsibility of the employer to provide a safe work atmosphere.
Joseph Devine
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Safe Storage of Flammable and Combustible Liquids

Flammable and combustible liquids are commonly used in day to day operations at industrial and commercial sites throughout the nation. These liquids present a danger of fire and explosion and their safe handling and storage is imperative. Flammable liquids are volatile and they tend to evaporate readily under normal atmospheric conditions. This evaporation rate increases if the liquids are stored in a warmer area or near a heat source. As the flammable liquid evaporates, vapors may arise which can ignite. The heat of a flame causes an increased generation of vapors, further fueling the flame.
Flashpoint is the minimum temperature at which a liquid gives off enough concentrated vapor to form an ignitable mixture with air immediately above the liquid surface.
Flammable Liquid has a flashpoint below 100° F. It is more dangerous than a Combustible Liquid and it can ignite at room temperature. This is a Class I Liquid.
Combustible Liquid has a flashpoint of 100° F or higher and can pose a serious explosion or fire danger if heated. This is a Class II or Class III Liquid.
Class III A Combustible Liquid has a flashpoint of 140° F or higher.
Class III B Combustible Liquid has a flashpoint of 200° F or above.
OSHA has developed standards for the safe handling and storage of flammable and combustible liquids. There are regulations for the use of storage cabinets as well as structural specifications for these cabinets. These cabinets meet a variety of chemical storage needs. There are:
Flammable Storage Cabinets
Acid and Corrosive Safety Cabinets
Polyethylene Acid And Corrosive Safety Cabinets
High Security Safety Cabinets
Storage Requirements For Flammable and Combustible Liquids
-Incompatible chemicals must be stored separately.
-All containers of flammable liquids must be stored in an approved flammable liquids storage cabinet.
-Flammable and combustible chemicals must be stored in fire resistant cabinets, designated storage rooms or buildings which meet OSHA and NFPA 30 requirements.
-The cabinet must be constructed to limit the internal temperature to not more than 325° F when subjected to a standardized 10 minute fire test.
-During a 10 minute fire test, all joints and seams of the cabinet must remain tight and the door must remain securely closed.
-A maximum of 60 gallons of Class I or Class II Liquids can be stored in a single storage cabinet.
-Up to 120 gallons of Class III liquids can be stored in one storage cabinet.
-The number of storage cabinets in one area must comply with OSHA regulations.
-Storage cabinets must be clearly labeled, "Flammable - No Open Flames - No Smoking - Keep Fire Away".
Spill911.com is a wealth of information about safety in the workplace. Visit us to learn more about safety cabinets. For more information about Industrial

By Andy Clark

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Life Saving Facts About Emergency Exit Routes For Your Office

What is an exit route? An exit route is a continuous and unobstructed parth of exit travel from any point within a workplace to a place of safety. An exit route consists of three parts: Exit Access - portion of a route that leads to an exit. Exit - portion of a route that is generally separated from other areas to provide a protected way of travel to the exit discharge.
Exit discharge - part of the route that leads directly outside or to a street, walkway, refuge area, public way, or open space with access to the outside. How many routes must a workplace have? Normally, a workplace must have at least two exit routes to permit prompt evacuation of employees and other building occupants during an emergency. More than two exits are required, however, if the number of employees, size of the building, or arrangement of the workplace will not allow employees to evacuate safely. Exit routes must be located as far away as practical from each other case one is blocked by fire or smoke.
Exception: If the number of employees, the size of the building, its occupancy, or the arrangements of the workplace allows all employees to evacuate safely during an emergency, one exit route is permitted. What are some other design and construction requirements for these routes? Exit routes must be permanent parts of the workplace. They must lead directly outside or to a street, walkway, refuge area, public way, or open space with access to the outside. Areas must be large enough to accommodate the building occupants likely to use the route. Exit stairs that continue beyond the level on which the exit discharge is located must be interrupted at that level by doors, partitions, or other effective means that clearly indicate the direction of travel to the exit discharge. Route doors must be unlocked from the inside.
They must be free of devices or alarms that could restrict use of the route if the device or alarm fails. Side-hinged exit doors must be used to connect rooms to the routes. These doors must swing out in the direction of travel if the room is to be occupied by more than 50 people or if the room is a high-hazard area. These routes must support the maximum permitted occupant load for each floor served, and the capacity of an exit route many not decrease in the direction of exit route travel to the exit discharge. Ceilings of exit routes must be at least 7 feet, 6 inches high. An exit access must be at least 28 inches wide at all points. Where there is only one exit access leading to an exit or exit discharge, the width of the exit and exit discharge must be at least equal to the width of the exit access. Objects that project into the exit must not reduce its width.
Outdoor routes are permitted but must meet the minimum height and width requirements for indoor routes and must -have guardrails to protect unenclosed sides if a fall hazard exits; -be covered if snow or ice is likely to accumulate, unless the employer can demonstrate accumulations will be removed before a slipping hazard exists; -be reasonably straight and have smooth, solid, substantially level walkways ; and -not have a dead-end longer than 20 feet. What are the requirements for exits?
They must be separated by fire resistant materials - that is, one-hour fire-resistance rating if the exit connects three or fewer stories and two-hour fire-resistance rating if the exit connects more than three floors. Exits are permitted to have only those openings necessary to allow access to the exit from occupied areas of the workplace or to the exit discharge. Openings must be protected by a self-closing, approved fire door that remains closed or automatically closes in an emergency. What are the maintenance, safeguarding, and operational features for these routes? OSHA standards require employers to do the following: Keep routes free of explosive or highly flammable furnishings and other decorations.
Arrange routes so employees will not have to travel toward a high-hazard area unless the path of travel is effectively shielded from the high-hazard area. Ensure that these routes are unobstructed such as by materials, equipment, locked doors, or dead-end corridors.
Ensure that safeguards designed to protect employees during an emergency remain in good working order. Provide lighting for the routes adequate for employees with normal vision. Keep doors free of decorations or signs that obscure the visibility of exit route doors. Post signs along the exit access indicating the direction of travel to the nearest exit if that direction is not immediately apparent.
Also, the line-of-sight to an exit sign must be clearly visible at all times. Mark doors or passages along a route hat could be mistaken for an exit "Not an Exit" or with a sign identifying its use (such as "Closet"). Install "EXIT" signs in plainly legible letters. Renew fire-retardant paints or solutions often enough to maintain their fire-retardant properties. Maintain routes during construction, repairs or alternations. Provide an emergency alarm system to alert employees, unless employees can promptly see or smell a fire or other hazard in time to provide adequate warning to them.

Peter Altuch,

President HR Training University
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8 Ways to Prevent Injuries When Cleaning

There are many ways you or your cleaning workers can become injured on the job. By taking a few precautions and spending time on safety training, you can save your cleaning company money by preventing accidents from happening. Here are a few tips for preventing injuries:
Slips and Falls. Make sure you and your workers wear the proper footwear. Athletic shoes are preferred - never allow open-toed shoes or shoes with slippery soles to be worn on the job.
Ergonomic Injuries. Make sure everyone knows how to lift safely. For example, bend at the knees and not at the waist. Vary the employees' activities to avoid repetitive motions that can cause injuries. If possible, use equipment that is ergonomically designed like back pack vacuums. Before using a back pack vacuum, adjust it for the proper fit.
Equipment Accidents. Train employees on how to use all equipment properly in order to avoid accidents and keep the equipment in good working order. Floor machines like buffers and carpet cleaning equipment can be hard to handle so give employees plenty of practice. Allow only trained employees to use this type of equipment.
Climbing Accidents. Make sure employees use sturdy ladders for climbing. Never use furniture, boxes or wobbly ladders. Never stand on the top rung of the ladder and don't over-reach or lean too far to one side when standing on a ladder.
Cuts or Puncture Wounds. Never push down on trash to compact it as there may be sharp objects that can puncture your hands. Never pick up broken glass with your hands - use a broom and dust pan.
Respiratory Injuries. Avoid using aerosols in your cleaning business, as it's easier to breathe in the fumes from this type of container. Instead use pump sprayers and spray a small amount into your cleaning cloth rather than spraying large amounts onto the surface you're cleaning.
Avoid feather dusting, which makes the dust airborne and increases the risk of inhalation. Rather, use damp dusting methods with microfiber cloths. Also avoid sweeping. Instead, vacuum hard floors with a back pack vacuum and then damp mop the floor with a microfiber flat mop to keep dust from becoming airborne.
Eye and Skin Injuries. Use protective eye glasses when using cleaning chemicals to keep the spray from entering the eyes. Use protective gloves when using cleaning chemicals to prevent them from contacting the skin, causing irritation or burning.
As you can see, these simple precautions can keep you and your employees from becoming injured on the job. By spending a little bit of time on training, you'll save lots of money in escalating costs of worker's compensation insurance and lost time on the job.
Jean Hanson is Co-Founder of MyHouseCleaningBiz.com and TheJanitorialStore.com. Both are online communities for owners of commercial and residential cleaning companies who want to build a more profitable and successful cleaning business.

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Health Drinks May Not Be So Healthy After All

Health living is now a popular trend and thus emerged many companies offering health products and services. According to experts, taking vitamins and mineral supplements in liquid form can be quite effective in achieving optimum health. This is because in this liquid form, the body can absorb the nutrients it needs easily. This is the reason why health drinks are so popular today, that many companies come up with health drinks in liquid form such as those in juices while others come up with powder form which can be mixed with water, to be consumed.
However, many so-called "healthy drinks," may not be as good as they claimed to be. Some health drinks, for example, energy drinks are high in sugar content and caffeine. Consuming too much energy drinks can lead to heart palpitations, anxiety, insomnia and irritability. Juice drinks are usually high in sugar content and regular consumption of it will lead to an increase in your waistline as well as the risk of getting diabetes.
So for those who are into healthy drinks, it is time to learn how to determine which are the ones that can help you achieve optimum health and which ones do not. When shopping for health drinks, be sure to check the labels and avoid those which have the following ingredients:
artificial flavors and sweeteners. Artificial flavors are commonly found in colas, sweet juices and candy bars and also in most health drinks that are flavored-based. These artificial flavors and sweeteners can cause pH imbalances in the blood.
high fructose corn syrup. This is the major cause of weight gain as it is a concentrated sugar. Excessive consumption can lead to abnormal blood sugar levels that may eventually cause diabetes.
processed vitamins. These vitamins have been heated, liquefied and isolated and thus they have been broken down and the the body will not benefit from them.
phosphoric acid. This acid is usually found in detergents, fertilizers and other pharmaceuticals products. Consumption of this acid can lead to the irritation of the skin and eyes.
artificial coloring such as the yellow 6, yellow 5 and red 40.
modified food starch.
No doubt that ready-made commercial health drinks are convenient especially for the busy working people, nothing beats making your own health drink. All you need is a juicer, ice, plenty of fresh fruits and vegetables and you can get fresh, natural health drinks everyday.

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Slips, Trips And Falls: The Dangers Of Work

Each year approximately 400,000 employees are injured due to an accident at work.Recent statistics from the Health and Safety Executive have revealed that hundreds of workers across the UK have either injured or died because of a work related accident between 2007 and 2008.

According to figures from the HSE, there were 74 fatalities within the services sector from 2007-2008 with 72 in construction, 39 in agriculture and 35 in manufacturing.The report stated that “Of the main industrial sectors, agriculture and construction have the highest rates of fatal injury. Together these two sectors account for nearly half of fatal injuries to workers.”According to the HSE, slips and trips within the work place were the cause of major injuries reaching figures of nearly 11,000 reported incidents last year, while fatal accidents were caused by falls from heights.Slips, trips and falls are believed to be the biggest concern within health and safety costing over £800 million, according to 80 per cent of all British employers.According to the report, 229 workers had died of a work related accident while 136,771 injuries had been reported. 2.1 million Brits believed that their illness was made worse by their current or previous work.The report stated that “There is a long-term downward trend in the rate of fatal injuries. However, the year on year improvement has become less marked in recent years, to the extent that there has been very little change over the last six years.”‘Shattered Lives’ CampaignEarlier this year, the HSE introduced a new campaign to reduce the number of workers involved in work accidents.It targets those at higher risks of a slip, trip or fall at work and aims to prevent them from injuring themselves.Head of the Injuries Reduction Programme, Dr Elizabeth Gibby of HSE said: "Each year slips, trips and falls cost the British society nearly £811 million pounds. They can also have a shattering effect on businesses through costs such as employee absence, sick pay and reduced productivity."Each week someone dies from a slip, trip or fall at work. Over 50 per cent of injuries had been reported to the HSE last year in the catering and hospitality industry alone.Dr Gibby continued: “But what these figures don't reflect, is the extent to which these injuries affect individual workers and their families. Slips, trips and falls can be viewed as being minor, funny accidents but the effects are not. It can lead to major injuries, and a lifetime of disability or time off work and in worst cases, fatalities. 'Shattered Lives' will encourage people to change their attitudes: if you spot a hazard, don't assume 'somebody else will sort it out."“Irrespective of the size of the business and the job that you do, it could happen to you,” she added.
By: Manani Arti
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Selasa, 19 Mei 2009

Effects of Plastic bags on environment

Every once in a while the government here passes out an order banning shop keepers from providing plastic bags to customers for carrying their purchases, with little lasting effect. Plastic bags are very popular with both retailers as well as consumers because they are cheap, strong, lightweight, functional, as well as a hygienic means of carrying food as well as other goods. Even though they are one of the modern conveniences that we seem to be unable to do without, they are responsible for causing pollution, killing wildlife, and using up the precious resources of the earth.

About a hundred billion plastic bags are used each year in the US alone. And then, when one considers the huge economies and populations of India, China, Europe, and other parts of the world, the numbers can be staggering. The problem is further exacerbated by the developed countries shipping off their plastic waste to developing countries like India. Here are some of the harmful effects of plastic bags:

Plastic bags litter the landscape:

Once they are used, most plastic bags go into landfill, or rubbish tips. Each year more and more plastic bags are ending up littering the environment. Once they become litter, plastic bags find their way into our waterways, parks, beaches, and streets. And, if they are burned, they infuse the air with toxic fumes.

Plastic bags kill animals:

About 100,000 animals such as dolphins, turtles whales, penguins are killed every year due to plastic bags. Many animals ingest plastic bags, mistaking them for food, and therefore die. And worse, the ingested plastic bag remains intact even after the death and decomposition of the animal. Thus, it lies around in the landscape where another victim may ingest it.

Plastic bags are non-biodegradable:

And one of the worst environmental effects of plastic bags is that they are non-biodegradable. The decomposition of plastic bags takes about 1000 years.

Petroleum is required to produce plastic bags:

As it is, petroleum products are diminishing and getting more expensive by the day, since we have been using this non renewable resource increasingly. Petroleum is vital for our modern way of life. It is necessary for our energy requirements – for our factories, transport, heating, lighting, and so on. Without viable alternative sources of energy yet on the horizon, if the supply of petroleum were to be turned off, it would lead to practically the whole world grinding to a halt. Surely, this precious resource should not be wasted on producing plastic bags.

Dangers to Sea Life:

Plastic bags are now amongst the top 12 items of debris most often found along coastlines ranging from Spitzbergen in the north to the Falklands in the south.Animals and sea creatures are hurt and killed every day by discarded plastic bags, a dead turtle with a plastic bag hanging from its mouth isnt a pleasant sight but mistaking plastic bags for food is commonplace amongst marine animals. Plastic clogs their intestines and leads to slow starvation. Others become entangled in plastic bags and drown.Because plastic bags take hundreds of years to break down, every year our seas become home to more and more bags that find their way there through our sewers and waterways. Every bag thats washed down a drain during rainfall ends up in the sea every bag thats flushed down a toilet, ends up in the sea every bag thats blown into a river will most likely end up in the sea.

Various alternatives to Plastic bags:

1. Use biodegradable bags made from fabrics.

2. Ladies can fold a cotton bag or two in to their purses which can be used to quench their sudden urge for shopping.

3. Nylon bags can be used and reused several times.

4. Donate old news papers and magazines to small scale institutes that cut these old papers in to paper bags and packets.

5. Use a wicker basket. (They can make a fashion statement today.)

6. Educate the local retailers on the ill effects of use of plastics.

7. Insist your local retailers to use plastic bags of thicker variety if at all he has to use.

8. Offices can distribute canvas bags as New Year gifts instead of diaries and other sweet nothings.9. Better still buy a foldable shopping trolley. When you can buy a stroller for your new born this is not impossible you see.

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Developing a Safety Policy

The first step a company can take in managing the health and safety of its stakeholders is to openly and visibly commit itself to Safety. This Management Commitment is a fundamental part of any successful safety management system, without which the entire system is doomed to mediocrity, at best. Only after management commitment has been established can a company take a step to developing a concise SAFETY POLICY - a statement openly committing the company to safeguarding all its identified stake-holding elements.
At this point, as previously highlighted, there should be a committed, enlightened top management team, all prepared to move the organisation towards an improved safety (& health) state of employees, property, equipment and processes. How can this be achieved? By taking the first crucial step of formulating a safety policy statement for the organisation. The safety policy statement is a written document that clearly sets out what the organisation intends to achieve in terms of safety, and serves to communicate to employees, a clear impression of management's commitment to achieving pre-set objectives in safety. Basically, the organisation's management is openly dedicating itself to the cause of safe working - stating that it will always strive to ensure all its elements are safe. This is an important point to remember when formulating a safety policy - that its intention is to bind the organisation to a cause that is considered worthy and not merely a means to bestow a certain status or image on an organisation. Importantly also, the safety policy is not to be used as a means to achieve compliance to any registration prerequisites, such as pre-registration to provide supplier services as is required by some industry sectors. Rather it is a powerful tool that can launch an organisation on a journey towards actualisation, employee and customer satisfaction and customer retention.
Usually, the policy statement is in three parts:
Part One - Overall Statement of Intent : This portion outlines the organisation's overall philosophy in terms of safety management and details SMART (Specific, Measurable, Achievable, Realistic and Time-bound) objectives for safety performance, that the organisation will strive to attain.
Part Two - Roles, Responsibilities and Organisation : This part of the statement should outline the 'organisational chart' vis-à-vis safety matters. Lines of responsibilities and accountabilities, beginning from the CEO him/herself should be clearly stated. For instance the identity of the official with overall responsibility for safety should be stated. The identity of Safety representatives in major units such as in production or operations should also be stated. It is also in this part of the safety policy that the function and composition of safety committees is defined. A physical organisational chart, showing these lines of responsibilities should be drawn up and placed in public place to improve the understanding of roles in safety management.
Part Three - Policy Implementation : The third part addresses the organisational arrangements, which have been put in place to ensure the policy is effectively implemented. These include, (but are not limited to), Safety training, safe systems of work, accident reporting and investigation systems, documentation systems, incentive schemes, health management systems, auditing and monitoring systems, emergency response systems, fire security and so on. Each organisation should develop safety management arrangements, which are specific to its own operations.
There are many recommended styles of safety policies. Here are some suggestions for formulating a policy, gleaned from successful models worldwide. Good safety policy statements should reflect:
An organisation's commitment to cascading safety (&health) in all aspects of operations.
An acceptance that safety performance contributes to the organisation's overall business performance
The intention to promote a safety culture within the organisation
A commitment to ensuring that all safety policies, goals, objectives and programmes are disseminated and understood throughout the organisation
The allocation of safety responsibilities to all managers in the organisation
The intention to set safety objectives, which will be communicated to all employees
A commitment to openness and the involvement of employees in decisions on safety related matters
Methods by which the policy will be audited and monitored
The need for employee participation and cooperation
Who should be responsible for developing a safety policy?
The safety policy may be drafted either by the company safety officer (or any individual responsible for managing safety in the organisation) or by an external safety consultant. However, primary responsibility for developing the company safety policy lies with management. Management must be fully involved in the conceptualisation and birth of the company's guiding statement on safety. The obvious reason for this is that the policy statement is the bedrock of safety - it is the company's written (and binding) commitment to improving its safety performance, and should reflect top management philosophy on this crucial issue.
The policy statement document should be signed by the CEO with copies placed at strategic locations throughout the organisation. The policy can either be a stand-alone document or a part of the company's operational manual.
A common occurrence is the drifting away of management and staff from the safety policy statement, especially if it has existed for years and has not been acted upon. Though considerable time may have been spent preparing the document, little attention is paid to it and not much success is recorded in the achievement of stated goals and objectives.. To avoid this, policy statements must be strictly adhered to, and reviewed when changes occur within the organisation. In many Nigerian companies today, the safety policy statement is a symbolic 'passport' to gain admittance into the world of prospective clients. The statement, after formulation, simply sits on the table and is never addressed or implemented.
There is much to be gained from the policy statement. As stated earlier it is a powerful tool, and the foundation of any successful and effective safety management system.



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NEBOSH National General Certificate - Exam Hints and Tips

Now you've committed yourself to taking the NEBOSH Certificate, you've probably wondered what you've got yourself into! Hopefully the following hints & tips will help you to get the maximum marks possible.

Tips for the Written Papers

First Things First!
Start by reading the exam paper all the way through. You should find at least one question that you are confident about answering. The pages in your answer book are numbered according to the question you are answering, so it doesn't matter in which order you do the questions, as long as you put your answer on the corresponding page of the answer book. It's a good idea to start with the question you're happiest about, as this gets your brain working and gives you confidence. Work through a couple of 'easier' questions & then tackle some of the harder ones. Just make sure you attempt them all!

Clock Watch!
You must keep your eye on the time. You are allowed 2 hours for each paper.. There are 11 questions on each paper, and you are expected to answer every one. Question 1 is worth 20 marks, and you should allocate about 25 minutes for your answer. Questions 2-11 are worth 8 marks each, and therefore you have to answer 10 questions in 90 minutes. If you allow 8 minutes for each question, you will have a small cushion at the end to check over your paper, or to finish any last bits.

Please remember: -
It is better to provide an answer to every question than to do 9 or 10 of them well!
Statistically, candidates score the most marks for the information they give at the beginning of their answers. You will get very few extra marks for a long, rambling answer.. It's also worth remembering that for any question you fail to attempt, your score will be ZERO!
So, answer every question, even if you're not over-confident. If you have reached the time limit (25 minutes for Q1 & 8 minutes for each of the others) MOVE ON! You do not want to end up wasting time perfecting one answer if it means you run out of time to attempt all the questions.

Answer the Question!
We all know the sorts of questions we would like to be on the paper - trouble is, they're not always there! You need to:

Get an idea of what the question is asking. This is especially important on Q1, which is often a part question. It is very easy to start rushing in to the answer, only to find when you get to part (ii) that you're writing similar things. NEBOSH do not ask you to give the same information twice in one question, so if this is happening, you're going wrong.

This will give you an idea of the depth of answer required, denoted by the action verb (e.g. outline, describe, state, list etc). It also focuses your mind on actually answering. It is a good idea to highlight the important words in the question, either by underlining them or by using a highlighter pen. Again, this clarifies what you are being asked and allows you to think about what your answer should be. You can’t take your exam paper away with you, but you can highlight things on it.

· Once you've started your answer, check the question to make sure you're answering what you've been asked.
If I had £1 for every student who'd gone off at a tangent in their answer to a NEBOSH question, I'd be a very rich lady!! You will do this at some point, but it's a good idea to make sure it happens in the classroom rather than in the exam! Simply by checking that you are answering the question, whilst you are doing it can save an awful lot of time & heartache. If you check halfway through, it does give you time to salvage something if you've gone wrong. (I’ve done it!).

Question Spotting!
NEBOSH are well aware that students practice answering past questions, and although they do repeat questions, they may not be straight repeats. You may see part of a question that has appeared before, with a different second part. Just be aware that you must read the question thoroughly and keep checking that you’re answering the right question.

Specific Types of Question
Some types of question come up again & again. On the Management paper you are often asked to "Outline the factors to consider when……..". This type of question requires you to think about the situation you have been given, and take an overview. They do not usually ask you to fix it! i.e. you do not have to outline a series of control measures. This is a very common mistake in approaching this type of question.
E.g. If you were asked to outline the factors to consider before forklift trucks are to be introduced to a new warehouse, you would outline factors such as
· The need for separating FLT movements from pedestrians;
· The need for the introduction of speed limits;
· Whether high visibility clothing would be required;
· The condition of the floors and terrain
· The type of FLT to be introduced e.g. the appropriate fuel supply
· The loads to be carried etc.
You should turn this list into an outline by adding the reason for each consideration you mention e.g. The condition of the floors and terrain would be an important consideration, as floors containing potholes or steep slopes can result in overturning of fork lift trucks.
It is tempting to try to fix the situation by giving answers such as: -
When FLTs are to be introduced into the workplace, it is essential that they do not come in to contact with pedestrians. In order to prevent this, dedicated traffic routes should be introduced, with speed limits. Any pedestrians who enter the area in which the FLTs are moving should wear appropriate PPE, such as high-visibility vests. In a warehouse, you should make sure that if the ventilation is poor, the FLTs are battery-powered. The floors should be free from potholes, as this can cause overturning of the FLT……………

These are in fact control measures to reduce the risks from FLTs operating in a new warehouse - but that's not actually what the question asked you for!! If you start doing this, you will get carried away & start answering a different question from the one you’ve been asked – don’t do it!

If you have trouble interpreting "Outline the factors to consider”, substitute “things” for “factors” & it might make the question easier to understand.

Hazards paper questions are usually a bit more straightforward, requiring either hazard identification or control measures or both.
Make sure that you understand the difference between hazard & risk. Some questions may ask you to identify hazards & others will ask for risks. If you get these mixed up, you may not get the marks. Remember that risks are outcomes.

Your answers
There are some basic rules to follow:-
Answer the question you’ve been set!
Don’t write a list if you’re asked for an outline (unless you’re running out of time) – you will loose marks.
If you include training, instruction or information as an answer, say what sort of training, information or instruction is required.
PPE is not sufficient as an answer, even in a list – give some examples of suitable PPE.
Answer the question you’ve been set!
If you’re asked for a list, single words are unlikely to score you marks. It’s not a shopping list - you need enough details to make the examiner understand what your point is.
Use principles to keep you organised. E.g. if you’re asked for controls, work through the Hierarchy of control giving appropriate examples; if you’re asked how you would manage a situation – apply the principles of HSG65 etc.
Answer the question you’ve been set!

Always remember, although Examiners are intelligent, they don’t know you – you have to get your answer down on paper in a way that tells them exactly what you mean.
When you've finished!
You should have a few minutes spare to check through your answers. Yes, I know it's boring, but you may think of something you couldn’t answer earlier, see part of a question you’ve forgotten to answer or see a glaring error. It's easier to pick up the odd extra mark by filling in gaps in questions which require you to list or identify, so if you've missed any out, now's the time to check what you've written and see if you've missed anything obvious.

What if I'm running out of time?
If you find yourself with only minutes to spare to the end of the exam, & you still have a question to do, complete it as a list. This at least gives you the chance to get some marks, rather than leaving it blank and scoring zero. The extra marks you pick up here could make the difference between referral/ pass; pass/credit, or even credit/distinction! If you do have some time spare on an outline, describe or explain question, add a reason or an example – it may get you full marks.

How can I improve my chances of passing?
· Revise as you go - you cannot leave it until the last minute, as there is far too much information to take in. Also you need to ensure that you understand what you've been taught/have read. If you are having problems, you will be able to clarify them with your tutor in plenty of time.

· Practice past questions - You can obtain past question papers and Examiners' Reports from the NEBOSH website http://www.nebosh.org/. You should aim to practise answering questions and then check your answer against the Examiners' comments. There are often repeated questions on exams, so having practised a good selection may help with any repeated questions on your exam.

· Don't panic! - Panic will just make it harder to answer the questions. It can be tempting when you read the exam paper to panic if you think you can't do some of the questions. Just breathe deeply, read the question paper again & start with a question you are reasonably happy with.

Tips for the Practical

The Inspection
Get organised! Think of the areas that you need to look at. Put those headings on individual sheets at the start of the exam. There’s no restriction on the number of sheets you use.

Make sure you fill in each column of the observation sheet – don’t leave the risk level or the action required columns blank, as it will reduce your marks.
Don’t mark everything as high risk which needs action immediately – your suggested corrective action needs to be achievable as well as aimed at reducing the risks.
Aim to give a spread of actions to correct problems where possible. Single actions often don’t prevent the problem from recurring, and may need considerable budget. Suggest some intermediate steps to reduce risk progressively with sensible timescales. Ongoing monitoring also signifies that some solutions need checking to maintain their effectiveness.

The Report to Management
This needs to be concise, convincing and it needs to address URGENT issues. Your time is short, so the report also needs to be short.

Use headings and give it a structure. A summary will aid readability and will persuade (or not!) the manager to read the full report.

Pick no more than 5 urgent issues and make sure that for each one, you say:-

What you found (in general terms)
Why it's a problem (what the possible outcomes are)
What legislation is being breached (e.g. contravenes the COSHH Regulations)
What needs to be done (include any statutory requirements e.g. Requirement of Fire legislation that all premises have an emergency plan)
Who needs to do it (e.g. workshop manager)
Timescale (e.g. should be carried out within the next week). Don't forget to include longer-term action where appropriate.
An indication of cost (low, medium, high)

Remember that in general you are asking management to part with money, so you need to convince them that they should! State the likely benefits of implementing your suggested actions e.g. reduces the risk of serious injury to students and the likelihood of enforcement action and civil claims.

Remember to include both breeches of legislation and costs – these are commonly forgotten and there are a total of 10 marks available for them.




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Hydrogen sulfide (H2S)is an extremely hazardous, toxic compound. It is a color less, flammable gas that can be identified in relatively low concentrations, by a characteristic rotten egg odor. The gas occurs naturally in coal pits, sulfur springs, gas wells, and as a product of decaying sulfur-containing organic matter, particularly under low oxygen conditions. It is therefore commonly encountered in places such as sewers, sewage treatment plants (H2S is often called sewer gas), manure stockpiles, mines, hot springs, and the holds of fishing ships. Industrial sources of hydrogen sulfide include petroleum and natural gas extraction and refining, pulp and paper manufacturing, rayon textile production, leather tanning, chemical manufacturing and waste disposal.

Hydrogen sulfide has a very low odor threshold, with its smell being easily perceptible at concentrations well below 1 part per million (ppm) in air. The odor increases as the gas becomes more concentrated, with the strong rotten egg smell recognisable up to 30 ppm. Above this level, the gas is reported to have a sickeningly sweet odor up to around 100 ppm. However, at concentrations above 100 ppm, a person's ability to detect the gas is affected by rapid temporary paralysis of the olfactory nerves in the nose, leading to a loss of the sense of smell. This means that the gas can be present at dangerously high concentrations, with no perceivable odor. Prolonged exposure to lower concentrations can also result in similar effects of olfactory fatigue. This unusual property of hydrogen sulfide makes it extremely dangerous to rely totally on the sense of smell to warn of the presence of the gas.
Health Effects of Hydrogen Sulfide
H2S is classed as a chemical asphyxiant, similar to carbon monoxide and cyanide gases. It inhibits cellular respiration and uptake of oxygen, causing biochemical suffocation. Typical exposure symptoms include:
0 - 10 ppm
Irritation of the eyes, nose and throat
10 - 50 ppm
Headache Dizziness Nausea and vomiting Coughing and breathing difficulty
50 - 200 ppm
Severe respratory tract irritation Eye irritation / acute conjunctivitis Shock Convulsions Coma Death in severe cases
Prolonged exposures at lower levels can lead to bronchitis, pneumonia, migraine headaches, pulmonary edema, and loss of motor coordination.
Working with Hydrogen Sulfide
Most countries have legal limits in force that govern the maximum allowable levels of exposure to hydrogen sulfide in the working environment. A typical permissible exposure limit in many countries is 10 ppm. While the distinctive odor of H2S is easily detected, its olfactory fatigue effects mean that one cannot rely on the nose as a warning device. The only reliable way to determine exposure levels is to measure the amount in the air. Regular monitoring will help to identify areas and operations likely to exceed permissible exposure limits, and any areas that routinely pose overexposure hazards should be equipped with continuous monitoring systems.

With a vapor density of 1.19, hydrogen sulfide is approximately 20 percent heavier than air, so this invisible gas will collect in depressions in the ground and in confined spaces. The use of direct reading gas detection instrumentation should be required before entering confined spaces such as manholes, tanks, pits, and reaction vessels that could contain an accumulation of H2S gas.
Wherever possible, exposure should be minimised by employing adequate engineering controls and safe working practices. Such methods include ensuring good ventilation and changing work procedures and practices. Where engineering controls cannot adequately control levels of exposure, it may be necessary to supplement them with the use of suitable personal protective equipment (PPE) such as supplied-air respirators. A qualified industrial hygienist or safety professional should be consulted for guidance on the suitability and correct use of respirators.
Should a co-worker ever be overcome by H2S gas, do not attempt a rescue until you are properly protected yourself. The rescuer can very easily get caught out by venturing into a confined space without adequate protection. Remember that at levels above 200 ppm, collapse, coma and death due to respiratory failure can occur within seconds after only a few inhalations so you can be overcome yourself very quickly. Such incidents are sadly all too common and only serve to make the rescue effort twice as difficult.

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Effective safety and health management is about knowing how to identify and control hazards and applying key managerial principles so that employees work safety every day they're on the job.


* Management commitments

* Training

* Accountability

* Employee involvement

* hazard identification and control

* Accident investigation

* Evaluation


Safety starts with commitment from the top managers must be committed to safety and health and hold supervisors accountable for enforcing safe practices.Examples that stress management commitments.

# A written safety and health policy that clearly states expectations for supervisors and employees.

# Identification and allocation of resources to achieve safety and health expectations.

# job descriptions that define safety and health responsibility,ensure employees understand that fulfilling those responsibilities is a condition of employment.

#Procedures to evalute's employees' safety performance and methods to correct unsafe work practices.

# A designated competent person to supervise employees.Hold supervisors accountable and responsible for enforcing safety and health rules and safe work practices.


mployees should have orientation training that covers safety and health policies, safety rules and procedures for responding emergencies.Conduct new employee training before they begin works.train all employees before they are assigned to jobs that expose them to new hazards..A designated qualifies person must train employees at a level appropriate for their skills and in a language they can understand.Employees must be able to demonstrate correctly the safe practices associated with their job before they work alone.

1.How their assigned jobs safety

2.Safety and health hazards associated with their jobs and how to control the hazard.

3.Specific work procedure and safety requirements at the site.

4.How to use and maintain tools,equipment and machines requirements at site.

5.Safety and health rules that apply their jobs. Keep written records to each employees training that includes the employees name,the training date,the training received and the trainer..


All employees,including supervisors must have a clear understanding of the consequences for failing the perform their safety and health responsibilities.Strengthen accountability by doing the following.

* Develop and enforce a written disciplinary policy that has clear work place safety expectations for all employees.

* Hold supervisors responsible for developing proper attitudes for work place safety and health for enforcing safety and health rules, and for the safety record of those they supervise.

* Include employees safety and health responsibilities in their job descriptions and performance revolutions.Ensure that they understand fulfilling those responsibilities is a condition of employment. EMPLOYEE INVOLVEMENT

Safety cannot be managed effectively unless employees are involved in the day-to-day effort to keep the site safe.One of the best ways to get them involved is by having then attend safety meetings.their suggestion can help determine the resources necessary to achieve safety goals,develop training topics,identify hazards ans assist in programe development such as lockout-tagout procedures.


A baseline survey is a through evolution to the site-jobs, work practices,equipment and facilities-that identifies safety and health hazards.A complete survey tells you where the hazards are,what they are and how severe they could be.

Baseline surveys are snapshots that tell you where hazards were when you surveyed.Regular inspections tell you whether you've controlled the hazards and help you identify new hazards.develop a procedure to ensure regular inspections.Designate competent persons to conduct the inspections.


Watching for hazards is something that every one must do.Examples of what to watch for include;Unsafe work practices,missing equipment guards and poorly maintained or defective equipment.Require employees to report hazards immediatly to some one who has authority to act.


Asseses hazard that could result from the changes and determine how to control them.If your employees work at multiple sites you may need to do a hazard assesment at each site.Use material safety data sheets to identify chemical hazards.If employees handle hazards chemicals,develop a written hazard-communication plan that identifies the chemicals and describes how employees are informed about chemical hazards.employees must know how to use material safety data sheets(MSDS).A MSDS has detailed information about a hazardous chemical's health effects,physical and chemical characteristics,and safe practices for handling.Prepare a current hazardous chemical inventory list and have current MSDS for each hazardous chemical used.


Personal protective equipment is another way to control a hazard, but its only a barrier between the hazard and the user.If PPE fails, the user risks exposure.Before you purchase PPE,know the specific hazards it protects and against and be sure that it fits the user.Have an experienced safety professional help you when you're unsure especially when you're selecting chemical-protective clothing or respirators.Always train employes how to wear,use and maintain their equipment before they use it for the first time.

Keep passage ways,store rooms and work areas clean.Keep electical cords away from areas where people could trip ovr them.Keep floors clean and dry,use drains,false floors,platforms or mats in wet areas.


Any place of employment could have an emergency.work related,medical,or environmental.Have well stocked firstaid kits and a procedure for summoning ambulance or paramedic services.A well rehearsed emergency plan can protect lives,equipment and property.Business with more than 10 employees must put them plans in writing.For employees with 10 or fewer employees,the emergency plan does'nt have to be in writing.However employees must understand the plan so,they can respond promptly and appropriately an emergency.


Preventive maintanance keep equioment running properly,reduces downtime and prevents accidents.Keep maintanace logs that show when the work was done,what was done,and the next schedule maintanance date.remove unsafe machines,tools or equipment from service and always follow manufacturer's maintanance requirements.


Almost all acidents are preventable and each one has a cause-por supervision,inadequate training or safety policies.eliminate the cause and accidents can be prevented.Dvelop accident investigation procedure and ensure that the investigation is though andaccurate.get statements from witnesses and other involved in the accident and prepare a report that describes hoe the accident can be prevented from happening again.discuss accident and near miss incidents with employees.

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Senin, 11 Mei 2009

Boating and Basic Safety Tips

Keep in mind that no matter how much experience and expertise you have on boating, the safety rules should always be reviewed prior to each departure. The captain of the vessel is the one who is responsible for the security and safety of everybody on board. It is also extremely necessary that every person in the boat knows where to find the safety equipments. Orient everybody about how important it is that they know where these tools are located so that everyone can contribute to the safety of each person on board in the event of an emergency.
More than the pleasure and adventure of boating, responsibility also goes hand in hand with these. Therefore, above anything else, knowledge of safety rules and equipments is a must. Here are some boating tips:

1.Check the weather condition prior to going on board.

Television and radio forecasts are good sources of information. If you are noticing dark clouds coming, rough wind changes and a sudden drop in temperature, these are signs that you have to play it safe with the waters.

2.Always have a pre-departure checklist on handy.

This also means being prepared for different possibilities while on board including safety regulations and compliance on when to refuel. Having a checklist on hand ensures you that there are no boating safety rules and precautions had been forgotten. Here are what should be included in the checklist:

a)Weather check

b)Boat is currently registered

c)Boat licensed)Familiarity with where you are goinge)

Check tide and ensure that the ramp is suitable for launchingf)Check for any boat defects and areas that need repairg)Enough fuel for the trip plus reserveh)Food and water for the trip and back plus reservesi)Safety equipments and boat accessories that are all in good working conditionj)Show passengers where safety equipments and boat accessories can be foundk)Include reliable person in boat plan, number of passengers, what emergency beacon you have

3.Prepare safety equipments especially the ones strictly required by the law.

Be sure the check the laws in your local authorities.

Here are some the boating safety equipments that you should keep in your boat:

a)Oars, rope and knife

b)Radio, Mirror, Torch, Flares

c)Boat Hook

d)First Aid Kit

e)Fire Extinguisher

f)Drinking Water, Buoyancy aids and life jackets

g)Bucker or Bailer

h)Chart and compass

i)Anchors chain and rope

j)Emergency Position Indicating Radio Beacon (EPIRB)

4.Operate at a safe speed and observe this at all times.

Be aware of the busy areas and steer clear of huge vessels. Respect navigational aids and buoys which had been placed to ensure boating safety.

5.Designate one person on board who is familiar with all aspects of the boat including handling and operation.

This is just in case the primary navigator gets sick or incapacitated. It is important that somebody has the ability to bring everybody back on shore.

6.Develop and implement a float plan.

Make sure that somebody knows where you are going and how long you will be gone. Inform a family member or a local marina staff. Include the name, phone number and address of the trip leader, type of boat and registration details, number of passengers, what communication tools you have on board and trip details.

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Techniques To Educate Staff About Workplace Safety

Workplace safety is vital to your workforce and to your company. In any company, personnel are your most valuable asset. Workplace safety training is about more than keeping your workers safe, though preventing injury to both your staff and the general public is certainly the major reason for safety training. In nearly every industry, OSHA and other regulatory boards set standards for worker safety that must be met, and records that must be maintained to prove those standards are being met. If your company fails to follow the regulations, you could be hit with huge fines. If one of your workers is injured on the job and your company was out of compliance with any regulations, you may find yourself facing a hefty lawsuit for damages.
Since workplace safety is so vital, training your workers in safety procedures should be one of your company's top priorities. When choosing or designing a workplace safety education program, there are a number of things to take into account.

Reaching All of Your Workers

A great deal of the safety training that your workers need is information based. There are rules, regulations, standards and procedures that they should understand. Getting all that information into their hands can be time consuming. Mandatory meetings can eat into production time, and it can be difficult for your employees to retain when the info is all crammed into a one hour training session.According to the U.S. Department of Education, about 90 million Americans demonstrate low competency in reading, math and basic logic. In addition, there are about 32 million Americans for whom English is a second language. Any time you run a training session, you should simply assume that a percentage of your workers are struggling with understanding what's being read or spoken.Safety training videos are an excellent way to deliver the information that your workers need to know. While you can screen videos for your work crews in in-house meetings, there are ways to make it more convenient for your employees - and help them learn and retain more from what they see.
Make training videos when it's convenient for your workers.

Putting your safety training films and course materials online on a company server lets your workers log on and study at their own pace. That can be a lot easier than trying to gather everyone for screenings while still managing coverage for the floor or work site. Many of the best safety training films are available in a format that can be streamed or downloaded from a central server. Many companies are also turning to iPods, mini DVD players and MP3 players to deliver safety videos and training to their workers.
Use participatory activities to help drive points home.

One environmental plant manager, for instance, used maps of the facility to help his workers understand safety planning. In an in-service training, he handed out maps and asked them to mark various safety hazards on the map in different colors. It helped them to visualize the layout of the plant in relation to safety hazards, and helped him identify gaps in their knowledge.
Train in context.

While safety training videos can be an excellent way to explain important concepts, they work best if you use them in context. Unless a training film has been custom made for your particular company, your workers will get more out of the video if you put it within a framework. If you're showing a video on how to identify asbestos, for example, start with an explanation of how the training applies to their job and why it's important for them to understand it.
Reinforce concepts from safety training films after the video is over.After the video, encourage discussion by asking questions and stepping back to listen to answers. It will help you gauge how well the message was received and give you the opportunity to reinforce important concepts and correct mistaken assumptions.
Seek out safety training grants to help finance your training efforts.

There are safety training grants available through various branches of the federal, state and local governments. Homeland Security grants, for instance, can be used to purchase safety training videos about emergency preparedness, handling hazardous materials and responding to emergencies using the national framework for emergency response. Trade unions may offer grants that will help you purchase materials to teach safety issues appropriate to your field.

Safety training for your workers should be a top priority. These tips can help you design a comprehensive worker safety education program that will keep your workforce safe and your company in compliance with all safety regulations.

About Author:Brian Jenkins is a freelance writer who writes about topics concerning emergency planning, safety preparedness and demonstrations for emergency response such as Safety
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Working at Height Will your safety harness kill you

Harnesses can become deadly whenever an operative is suspended for durations of over five minutes in an upright posture with the legs relaxed straight beneath the body. After five minutes they are highly likely to be unconscious - but operatives attending the scene often don't realise the seriousness of the situation and, 15 minutes later a dead body is hauled up. The cause of this problem is called 'suspension trauma'. Suspension Trauma - Orthostatic IntoleranceUnless the operative is rescued promptly using established safe procedures, suspension trauma caused by orthostatic intolerance could occur and result in serious or fatal injury as the brain, kidneys and other organs are deprived of oxygen.Most users of fall protection equipment, as well as rescue personnel and health and safety professionals are unaware of the hazard of suspension trauma. Venous pooling - The need to faint and fall overDeath from suspension trauma is caused by orthostatic intolerance and is the result of venous pooling. This can occur any time a person is required to stand still for prolonged periods and may be worsened by heat and dehydration. A well-known example of orthostatic intolerance is that of the soldier who faints while standing to attention for any length of time. Major blood vessels pass through the muscles in the legs. The movement of these muscles assists circulation by squeezing the blood back up towards the heart. If the muscles stop moving, as in the case of the soldier, gravity pulls the blood down into the legs.Eventually, enough blood accumulates (venous pooling) so that return blood flow to the right chamber of the heart is reduced as the heart can only pump the blood available, so its output begins to fall. The heart then speeds up to maintain sufficient blood flow to the brain but, if the blood supply to the heart is restricted enough, the higher pulse and faster breathing is ineffective and the body abruptly slows the heart. The result is fainting.The moment the soldier loses consciousness he collapses and becomes horizontal so the time spent in a vertical position while unconscious is minimal and, as blood flow improves - the result of being horizontal - the soldier returns to consciousness and recovery is likely to be rapid.When a person is suspended in a harness in which their legs are immobile, unlike the fainting soldier the person does not or cannot naturally move into a horizontal position, then gravity pulls blood into the lower legs.

In a harness, the operative can't fall into a horizontal posture, so the reduced heart rate causes the brain's blood supply to fall below the critical level. During excessive venous pooling, cardiac output and arterial pressure fall to levels which can critically reduce the quantity and/or the quality of oxygenated blood flowing to the brain. What to look out for - If a worker is suspended in a harnessThe possible signs and symptoms of orthostatic intolerance can start to be seen in 2/3 minutes and can include: Ø faintnessØ NauseaØ BreathlessnessØ DizzinessØ SweatingØ unusually low heart rateØ unusually low blood pressureØ palenessØ hot flushesØ "graying"Ø loss of vision Ø increased heart rateOwing to the possibility of damage to vital organs - the result of suspension trauma - it is recommended that all recovered casualties should be taken to their nearest Accident & Emergency Unit for examination and observation.Being aware of the demands for fast, simple and effective rescue, Leading Edge Supplies Ltd have developed a range of products and courses specifically designed for rescue in the construction industry, allowing typical site operatives to rescue conscious and unconscious casualties in under ten minutes.
Leading Edge Height Safety Rescue training course has been designed with our extensive knowledge and experience of construction sites in mind. We understand the operative capabilities, the scope of works involved in a project package and the constraints on access and restrictions and we have developed our training course accordingly.Being aware of the demands for fast, simple and effective rescue,when working at height Leading Edge Safety have developed a range of products and courses specifically designed for at height rescue in the construction industry, allowing typical site operatives to rescue conscious and unconscious casualties in under five minutes.

Author: drew700x

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Minggu, 10 Mei 2009

How to Stop Injury Hiding and Build a Successful Safety Program

"I've inherited a safety incentive program that rewards people for lagging indicators and I'm worried there maybe injury hiding. How can I shift it to become behavior based?"
All too often, safety managers find themselves the unwilling benefactors of an old school safety incentive program based on trailing indicators. These programs reward employees to work a period of time without reporting injuries. While initially sometimes achieving dramatic injury reductions, these programs quickly deteriorate into a "self-perpetuating nightmare" as one safety manager put it.
Some of the most common problems associated with these programs are:
1. Hard to say if the incentive budget is really producing a return on investment.
2. Injury hiding as employees cover things up so as not to interfere with the group winning the award prize.
3. A "band aid" approach to safety as opposed to ripping out the roots of accidents.
4. An "entitlement mentality" where employees feel that they should be paid more or somehow earn a bigger prizes based on the number of years they've been injury free.
5. Safety committees who spend more time picking out the next gift than figuring out the behaviors that should be rewarded and reinforced.
6. A focus on "what we will give as a prize" instead of "what behaviors will we reinforce?"
7. Employees who take safety seriously are rewarded at the same level as those who break safety rules and take chances--sending a message that management really only values the safety scores at the end of the year, not the behaviors that led to them.
So how do you drop lagging indicator rewards in favor of behavior-based recognition?
Many companies just go "cold turkey." With a CEO's backing, the safety manager will simply end the trailing indicator rewards and get rid of the sacred cow.
Some companies choose to have no recognition in it's place (not a good idea), but others work to design a more behavioral type reward program.
In this approach, the new standard becomes "zero unsafe behaviors and conditions" in place of the old target of "zero injuries."
Raising the bar sets a new standard for organizations who have struggled year after year to attain Zero Injuries but often failed. Now, armed with a behavioral tool that helps them chart unsafe actions, near misses, safety improvement suggestions, they can focus on the upstream and in striving relentlessly for Zero Unsafe Behaviors they achieve Zero Injuries as a byproduct.
Sticking with trailing-indicator rewards will kill this upstream approach every time. In short, "what got you here, won't get you there" and it is time to take off the training wheels and move into a behavior-based solution.
So what are the dynamics of an effective behavior based recognition solution?
Training: No more "Spray & Pray"
New research shows that 95% of all training is forgotten within 2 weeks (some safety managers say it happens in less than 2 hours!).
Many companies fool themselves into thinking that having employees sign a log sheet stating they attended the training meeting is sufficient to say that training has occurred. They use a "spray and pray" approach to training where they spray their posters, newsletters and safety videos at employees and pray that people are paying attention...with no way to measure the impact of their training.
So, one of the most important places to link recognition is to employees who pay attention and learn what you want them to. A further, more forward thinking step is to recognize kids and spouses of employees for their buy in to your process.
Recognition, the Right Way.
One company decided to get rid of their old school lagging indicator programs and replace it with an in house behavior based solution. They purchased a supply of gifts, hired a full time employee to run their store, and printed up little "Safety Bucks" which were given to supervisors to reward employees who "did something safe".
Over time, they noticed that only the supervisors and their favorite employees were receiving any gifts. The good 'ole boy system was the kiss of death for their program.
"Positive recognition has to occur on the spot, immediate, and within 15 seconds of the behavior," according to Aubrey Daniels. This means that you have to create an on the spot reward/recognition solution that eliminates favoritism, and injury hiding....and you have to get supervisors to buy into it and use it.
While the journey from lagging indicators to true behavior based recognition is not a piece of cake, the long term improvements to your safety process will be well worth the effort.
As president of the Bill Sims Company, Bill Sims, Jr. has developed employee recognition programs for over 1000 companies, including Disney, Dupont, Milliken and Coca-Cola. Bill is currently completing his first book - Green Beans & Ice Cream - The Definitive Recipe for Behavior Recognition. Download a 55-minute behavior-based recognition workshop this book is based on at http://www.billsims.com/greenbeans or email Bill directly at bill.sims@billsims.net.

Article Source: Bill_Sims_Jr.
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What to Do and Not Do in the Event of an Accident

The worst thing has just happened to you. You have had an accident. There's never a good time to have an accident but it always seems to happen at the worst possible time. So what do you do? First off you need to stay calm. It's a totally natural reaction to lose your head or panic right when you need to be rational. Just after the accident is the time you should be taking note of all the information you will need to ensure that you are fully compensated and covered for any damage done to your property or to you. Talk to witnesses, get their contact details, make notes and take pictures if possible at the time of the accident. You'll be glad you did as it will be difficult to accurately recall all of the details as time passes. Finally remember not to admit that you caused the accident, even if you did.
Right after the accident this will all be the last thing you think of, so make a checklist and keep it in the car.
While you are at the Accident Scene, note the following details
You will need:
Driver Details of everyone involved in the accident. Don't forget to add yours too. These details should cover the Drivers Name, driving license details, and driver insurance details including the insurance company name, policy number, and contact details. Finally remember to get the car license plate number. If you are carrying a camera take pictures of the accident scene, the damaged vehicles, and any injuries that were caused by the accident. Note the contact details of any witnesses such as name, address, phone number and email address so that you can follow up with them later.
Post-Accident Follow Up
Complete your own fully detailed description of the accident as soon as possible after it occurred. You can fill this in with the details and any pictures that you took at the scene of the accident. If you were injured then take pictures of your injuries. Follow up with the witnesses to the accident and get their written details of the accident. If the Police attended the scene of the accident ask for their report.
After the Accident
If you were injured you will need to keep track of the following medical expenses and visits:
Any hospital visits and treatments at hospitals such as MRI, x-ray, physiotherapy and laboratory services. Over the counter and prescription medications.
You should keep track of the dates, times and reasons you had to visit a doctor or the hospital, and keep a note of the time off of work due to the accident. If the time off caused a loss of income, you should get a letter detailing all of the lost income from your employer. Similarly if you are still in school you should keep track of all of the hours of missed schooling due to the accident.
While you are undertaking medical treatment you should take pictures of your injuries to show their progress over time. Keep a log of the date and time of the picture and add details of any pain that you are experiencing, how you are feeling, and any distress or discomfort that you experience as a result of the accident.
Keep track of all other expenses related to the accident. These will include some of the following: Property damages such as car repairs, damage to barriers, fences and signs.
Some other indirect expenses may also occur such as a cancelled vacation due to injuries sustained in the accident or the cost of a rental car while yours is repaired. Finally there are other miscellaneous costs, such as ointments,lotions to treat your injuries, and bandages.
Never reply to any questions or queries from any other party involved in or related to the accident, such as insurance companies or attorneys without first consulting your attorney. Do not settle any bills or sign any documents until you are sure of the extent of current and future medical expenses related to the accident, and have agreed on it with your attorney.
We sincerely hope you never need this advice, but if you are involved in an accident it's comforting to know that we are here!
Steve Dolan has been involved in several accidents and learned "The Hard Way". Click on Accidents and Injuries to find all the resources you need in the event of an accident.

Article Source:Steve_Dolan
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Never Do This If You Want Safe Drinking Water

What's your definition of safe drinking water? To me, it should be free of germs that cause waterborne illnesses and free of compounds that cause cancer and other health problems, but it should also taste good.
In most areas, the municipal effort to sanitize drinking water kills the germs, but does nothing to remove the chemicals and all you can taste is chlorine. I suppose that's why the bottled water industry brings in billions and billions of dollars every year.
But, is that really safe drinking water? It might be, but it might not. In many cases, it's simply purified tap-water. The purification method of choice for the industry is reverse osmosis, but that does nothing to get rid of chlorine. Some companies use a charcoal filter to improve the taste, but that doesn't make it any healthier.
Using chlorine to sanitize drinking water, or at least kill most of the bacteria, causes another compound to form. When the chemical chlorine interacts with microbes and is exposed to sunlight, a different compound forms.
All in all, as time goes by, as many as twenty different compounds can form as a result of chemical disinfection processes. As a group, the compounds are referred to as trihalomethanes or THMs.
THMs are listed as "known carcinogens". But, in the United States, the Environmental Protection Agency allows their presence in supposedly safe drinking water.
One bottled water company recently had to recall all of the bottles they had shipped to the United Kingdom, because they tested positive for THMs. So, that should answer any questions about the safety of buying bottled. It's not the best choice.
The best choice is to sanitize drinking water in your own home. If you have a well, today you can purchase a device that disinfects with UV light, so no chlorination or other chemical compounds are necessary.
If you are serviced by a treatment facility, then chlorination has probably already been performed, but you can further sanitize drinking water with the right purification device. Not only will it be safe drinking water, it's the safest.
If fits all of my criteria for safety, especially the part about taste. Removing chlorine improves the taste, but the best purification devices use an additional step to provide the best taste available. It's called ion exchange and it makes regular tap-water taste like it came from a mountain spring.
The purifiers further sanitize drinking water by including targeted filtering media that remove all of the cancer causing compounds and other chemicals that can cause chronic health problems. But, not every system is the same, you have to shop for the best or you won't get full protection or good taste.
You don't have to pay a fortune though. Some of the most expensive devices do the least. Waters purified through reverse osmosis or distillation, for example, still contains chemicals and the taste is stale, even though the devices cost more than anything else on the market.
To get really safe drinking water, you need a multi-stage device with selective filtration. The cost is very affordable and well worth it, just to the taste buds, alone.
Learn more about the best Home Water Filter Systems and Tap Water Filters today.
Tyler Waterman is a health enthusiast and enjoys sharing his experience and research with others on the internet. Visit his site for additional information on this important safe and healthy water topic.

Article Source:Tyler_Waterman
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Jumat, 08 Mei 2009

Correcting Your Posture, Getting The Most Of Your Ergonomic Equipment

Every item that you have around your desk or in your office space should be considered for their ergonomic qualities. Consider your ergonomic mouse, keyboard or office chair. Consider the type of computer panel you are using, whether it is the kind that takes up your entire desk, a nice, neat flat screen or an innovative touch screen panel. Follow some simple tips to make the most out of your work day. Talk to your EmployerTake a moment to talk to your manager or human resources department to get the equipment you need. If you are sitting poorly or have developed a slouch you can end up with painful or costly injuries. People go on many days of sick leave a year because of injuries that they incur at work. Businesses have an obligation to make sure their employers have a station that is safe and sound for their employees.
Consider your Chair

Did you know that laws exist regarding office chairs? There are minimum standards. Make sure that your chair is comfortable and can be adjusted to the right height and tilt. Consider a back support or back rest that can help you sit up straighter.

Monitor your Computer

Take a moment o look and see where your eyes are looking. Is your monitor directly in front of you? Is it an arm’s length away? If you adjust your chair don’t forget to adjust your monitor as well. Make sure that you aren’t getting a headache or eye strain because of the monitor on your computer. If you wear glasses you may need to consider anti-glare glasses.

Mice & Keyboards

Place your keyboard directly in front of you. Consider using a keyboard or mouse with a wrist rest to decrease strain. Make sure you are typing in a relaxed manner – make sure you have a natural posture so that you avoid tension.

Posture, Posture, Posture

Make sure you are sitting right – don’t cross your legs! If you need to get foot support so that you can sit up and place your feet on the floor. This will increase circulation and promote good health. Also, take a moment to get up and walk around every once in awhile. Stretch you legs.

Drink Water

It can’t get any simpler. To promote health, drink water and eat right. While this isn’t necessarily something that is a workspace design, it will help you work better and to feel more awake and energized. If your office is one of those with a candy bowl you can’t resist, make sure it does not reside near your desk so that you can cut out the sweets. Keep a glass of water on your desk so that if you need something to drink the water is very handy.

Making the most out of your work space is important. While you may think that decorating and using a little flair is more important than comfort, you are mistaken. Sit down with your company and make it a point – your health will thank you down the road if you watch out for your body now instead of when it starts screaming at you. Avoid those nasty work headaches, the eye strain and backaches by becoming more ergonomically friendly in your workspace.

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